C Things Part II

I'd like to quote K&R today (as we are taking a step back from SI204):

"Call by value is an asset, however, not a liability. It usually leads to more compact programs with fewer extraneous variables, because parameters can be treated as conveniently initialized local variables in the called routine."

Here's an example (from K&R):

/* power: raise base to n-th power; n>=0; version 2 */

int power(int base, int n)
    int p;

    for (p = 1; n > 0; --n) {
        p = p* base;
    return p;

I have added the brackets because I come from JavaScript (forgive me!) and for me {} offers readability.

Whatever is done to n inside power has no effect on the argument power was called with! Very nice.

Here is version 1:

#include <stdio.h>

/* K&R says functions can appear in any order? 
 * but that is against C99?
 * */

/* power: raise base to n-th power; n >= 0 */
int power(int base, int n) {
    int i, p;

    p = 1;
    for (i = 1; i <= n; ++i) {
        p = p * base;
    return p;

/* test power function */
int main() {
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {
        printf("%d %d %d\n", i, power(2, i), power(-3, i));
    // "programs should return status to their environment" p. 26, s 1.8;
    return 0;

This does not work the same for arrays, however. When an array is used as an argument to a function, the value passed is the location or address of the beginning of said array.

Dissect a problem into parts:

while (*there's another line*)
    if (*it's longer than the previous longest*)
        *save it*
        *save its length*
    *print longest file*

An aside here to further clarify K&R. K&R is a style. It is also known as C78, for the year of "The C Programming Language" publication.

After the publication of the book mentioned before, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) started to work on standardizing the language, and they announced ANSI X3.159-1989 in 1989. It is usually referred as ANSI C or C89. The main difference in this standard were the function prototypes, which is a new way of declaring functions. With the old- style function declarations, the compiler was unable to check the sanity of the actual parameters at a function call. The old syntax was highly error-prone because incompatible parameters were hard to detect in the program code and the problem only showed up at run-time.

In 1990, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted the ANSI standard as ISO/IEC 9899:1990 in 1990. This is also referred as ISO C or C90. It only contains negligible minor modifications against ANSI C, so the two standards often considered to be fully equivalent. This was a very important milestone in the history of the C language, but the development of the language did not stop.

Since then new standards have not been published, but the C language is still evolving. New and useful features have been showed up in the most famous C compiler: GNU C. Most of the UNIX-like operating systems use GNU C as a system compiler, but those addition in GNU C should not be considered as standard features.

Here is an interlude from Master Ueshiba:

If you have not

Linked yourself

To true emptiness,

You will never understand

The Art of Peace.

Mix style here:

#include <stdio.h>

#define MAXLINE  1000   /* maximum input line size */

int grabline(char line[], int maxline);
void copy(char to[], char from[]);

/* print the longest line */
// what should main do if line is bigger than limit?
int main() {
    int len;
    int max;
    char line[MAXLINE];
    char longest[MAXLINE];

    max = 0;
    // grab line returns an int 
    while((len = grabline(line, MAXLINE)) > 0) {
        if (len > max) {
            if (len > 80)
                printf("more than 80: %s\n", line);
            max = len;
            copy(longest, line);
    /* there was a line */
    if (max > 0) {
        printf("Max: %i\n", max);
        printf("This is longest: %s\n", longest);
    return 0;

int grabline(char s[], int lim) {
    int c, i;

    for (i = 0; i < lim - 1 && (c = getchar()) != EOF && c != '\n'; ++i) {
        s[i] = c;
    /* newline new char */
    if (c == '\n') {
        s[i] = c;
    /* denote the end of the array */
    s[i] = '\0';
    return i;

void copy(char to[], char from[]) {
    int i;

    i = 0;
    /* recall: end of the array in C is always `'\0'` */
    while ((to[i] = from[i]) != '\0') {

I think one of the many elegances of C resides in its treatment of characters. Reading the copy function highlights that.

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page last modified: 2020-04-12